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  • Writer's pictureDr. Karuturi Subrahmanyam

Normal Sugar Levels

Sugar, or glucose, is the main source of energy for your body. It comes from the food you eat and circulates in your blood. The amount of sugar in your blood is called your blood sugar level. It is important to keep your blood sugar level within a normal range to prevent or manage diabetes and its complications.

How to measure blood sugar levels

There are different ways to measure your blood sugar levels, depending on the purpose and frequency of testing. Some of the common methods are:

  • Fasting blood sugar (FBS): This is the level of sugar in your blood after you have not eaten anything for at least eight hours. It is usually done in the morning before breakfast. It reflects how well your body regulates sugar overnight and between meals.

  • Postprandial blood sugar (PPBS): This is the level of sugar in your blood after you have eaten a meal. It is usually done two hours after eating. It reflects how well your body handles sugar from food.

  • Random blood sugar (RBS): This is the level of sugar in your blood at any time of the day, regardless of when you last ate. It can vary depending on what you ate, how much you ate, and how active you were.

  • Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c): This is a blood test that measures the percentage of hemoglobin (a protein in red blood cells) that has sugar attached to it. It reflects your average blood sugar level over the past two to three months. It does not require fasting or any special preparation.

What are normal blood sugar levels

Normal blood sugar levels vary depending on your age, health condition, and type of test. The following table shows some general ranges for normal blood sugar levels according to different sources.

Normal range

  • Fasting blood sugar (FBS) - 70 to 100 mg/dL

  • Postprandial blood sugar (PPBS) - 70 to 140 mg/dL

  • Random blood sugar (RBS) - 70 to 140 mg/dL

  • Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) - below 5.7%

Prediabetes range

  • Fasting blood sugar (FBS) - 100 to 125 mg/dL

  • Postprandial blood sugar (PPBS) - 140 to 199 mg/dL

  • Random blood sugar (RBS) - 100 to 199 mg/dL

  • Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) - 5.7 - 6.4%

Diabetes range

  • Fasting blood sugar (FBS) - 126 mg/dL or above

  • Postprandial blood sugar (PPBS) - 200 mg/dL or above

  • Random blood sugar (RBS) - 200 mg/dL or above

  • Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) - 6.5% or above

Normal target range for people with diabetes

  • Fasting blood sugar (FBS) - 80 to 130 mg/dL

  • Postprandial blood sugar (PPBS) - 80 to 180 mg/dL

  • Random blood sugar (RBS) - 80 to 180 mg/dL

  • Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) - below 7%

These ranges are only guidelines and may not apply to everyone. Your doctor may recommend different targets for you based on your individual situation and risk factors. For example, pregnant women, children, older adults, and people with other medical conditions may have different goals for their blood sugar levels.

How to keep your blood sugar levels normal

Keeping your blood sugar levels within a normal range can help you prevent or delay the onset of diabetes and its complication. To lower your blood sugar levels, you need to:

  • Follow a healthy diet that is low in added sugars, refined carbohydrates, saturated fats, and salt. Choose foods that are high in fiber, protein, healthy fats, and vitamins and minerals. Eat regular meals and snacks and avoid skipping or overeating.

  • Exercise regularly for at least 150 minutes per week. Physical activity can help you burn calories, lower your blood sugar levels, improve your insulin sensitivity, and reduce your risk of cardiovascular diseases. Choose activities that you enjoy and can do safely, such as walking, cycling, swimming, or dancing.

  • Take your medications as prescribed by your doctor. If you have diabetes or prediabetes, you may need to take medications that lower your blood sugar levels or increase your insulin production or action. Follow your doctor’s instructions on how and when to take them and monitor their effects on your blood sugar levels.

  • Monitor your blood sugar levels at home using a glucometer or a continuous glucose monitor (CGM). This can help you track your blood sugar patterns, identify any highs or lows, adjust your diet, exercise, or medication accordingly, and prevent or treat any emergencies.

  • Visit your doctor and diabetes care team regularly for check-ups and tests. Your doctor can assess your overall health condition, review your blood sugar levels and HbA1c results, adjust your treatment plan if needed, and screen for any complications or risk factors.

By following these steps, you can keep your blood sugar levels normal and enjoy a healthy and happy life.

Dr. Karuturi Subrahmanyam, MD, FRCP (London), FACP (USA)

Internal Medicine Specialist

Kify Hospital



Phone : 85000 23456

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