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  • Writer's pictureDr. Karuturi Subrahmanyam

What are the Causes of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?

Diabetes is a condition that affects how your body uses sugar (glucose) for energy. Normally, your pancreas makes a hormone called insulin that helps glucose enter your cells. But in diabetes, either your pancreas doesn’t make enough insulin, or your cells don’t respond well to insulin, or both. This causes high blood sugar levels, which can lead to serious health problems.

There are different types of diabetes, and one of them is called Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus develops when your body doesn’t make enough insulin and/or your body’s cells don’t respond normally to the insulin (insulin resistance). This causes high blood sugar levels, which can be managed with lifestyle changes and oral medications. Sometimes, people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus also need to take insulin shots.

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is also known as adult-onset diabetes or non-insulin-dependent diabetes, because it usually starts in adulthood and does not always require insulin treatment. It is more common than Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, which usually starts in childhood or young adulthood and is caused by an autoimmune attack on the pancreas that destroys its ability to make insulin.

But what are the causes of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus? Why do some people develop this condition and others don’t? The exact cause of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is not known, but some factors that can increase your risk include:

  • Family history: Having a parent, brother, or sister with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus increases your risk of developing it yourself. The risk is higher if both parents have it, or if the affected relative was diagnosed before age 50.

  • Genetics: Having certain genes can make you more likely to develop Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. These genes are involved in how your body makes and uses insulin and glucose. However, having these genes does not mean you will definitely get Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, as other factors also play a role.

  • Obesity: Being overweight or obese can make your body more resistant to insulin and increase your demand for insulin. This can lead to high blood sugar levels and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Losing weight can help improve your insulin sensitivity and lower your blood sugar levels.

  • Physical inactivity: Not getting enough physical activity can make your body more resistant to insulin and increase your risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Physical activity can help your body use glucose better and lower your blood sugar levels. It can also help you lose weight and prevent other health problems such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol.

  • Age: You can get Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at any age, but it becomes more common as you get older. This may be because your body becomes less efficient at making and using insulin as you age, or because you tend to gain weight and become less active as you age.

  • Ethnicity: Some ethnic groups have a higher risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus than others. For example, people of African, Asian, Hispanic, Native American, or Pacific Islander descent are more likely to get Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus than people of European descent.

  • Gestational diabetes: This is a type of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy and usually goes away after delivery. However, having gestational diabetes increases your risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus later in life. You should get tested for diabetes after pregnancy and follow a healthy lifestyle to prevent or delay Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

  • Other factors: Some other factors that may contribute to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus include stress, smoking, alcohol use, certain medications, hormonal disorders, or infections.

Currently, there is no way to prevent Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus completely. However, you can reduce your risk by following a healthy lifestyle that includes eating a balanced diet that limits carbohydrates and sugars, exercising regularly, losing weight if needed, and quitting smoking and alcohol. You should also get screened for diabetes regularly if you have any risk factors or symptoms.

If you have Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus or think you might have it, you should see your doctor as soon as possible and get your blood sugar tested. Your doctor will prescribe a treatment plan that suits your needs and goals. You will need to follow this plan closely and monitor your blood sugar levels regularly. You will also need to get regular health checkups and tests to check for any complications or changes in your condition.

You can live a long and healthy life with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus if you work closely with your doctor and follow their advice.

Dr. Karuturi Subrahmanyam, MD, FRCP (London), FACP (USA)

Internal Medicine Specialist

Kify Hospital



Phone : 85000 23456

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